A Randomized Trial of Long-Term Oxygen for COPD with Moderate Desaturation

BACKGROUND

Long-term treatment with supplemental oxygen has unknown efficacy in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and resting or exercise-induced moderate desaturation.

METHODS

We originally designed the trial to test whether long-term treatment with supplemental oxygen would result in a longer time to death than no use of supplemental oxygen among patients who had stable COPD with moderate resting desaturation (oxyhemoglobin saturation as measured by pulse oximetry [Spo2], 89 to 93%). After 7 months and the randomization of 34 patients, the trial was redesigned to also include patients who had stable COPD with moderate exercise-induced desaturation (during the 6-minute walk test, Spo2 ≥80% for ≥5 minutes and <90% for ≥10 seconds) and to incorporate the time to the first hospitalization for any cause into the new composite primary outcome. Patients were randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive long-term supplemental oxygen (supplemental-oxygen group) or no long-term supplemental oxygen (no-supplemental-oxygen group). In the supplemental-oxygen group, patients with resting desaturation were prescribed 24-hour oxygen, and those with desaturation only during exercise were prescribed oxygen during exercise and sleep. The trial-group assignment was not masked.

RESULTS

A total of 738 patients at 42 centers were followed for 1 to 6 years. In a time-to-event analysis, we found no significant difference between the supplemental-oxygen group and the no-supplemental-oxygen group in the time to death or first hospitalization (hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79 to 1.12; P=0.52), nor in the rates of all hospitalizations (rate ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.13), COPD exacerbations (rate ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.19), and COPD-related hospitalizations (rate ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.17). We found no consistent between-group differences in measures of quality of life, lung function, and the distance walked in 6 minutes.

CONCLUSIONS

In patients with stable COPD and resting or exercise-induced moderate desaturation, the prescription of long-term supplemental oxygen did not result in a longer time to death or first hospitalization than no long-term supplemental oxygen, nor did it provide sustained benefit with regard to any of the other measured outcomes. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services; LOTT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00692198.)

Advertisements

Effectiveness of Fluticasone Furoate–Vilanterol for COPD in Clinical Practice

BACKGROUND

Evidence for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) comes from closely monitored efficacy trials involving groups of patients who were selected on the basis of restricted entry criteria. There is a need for randomized trials to be conducted in conditions that are closer to usual clinical practice.

METHODS

In a controlled effectiveness trial conducted in 75 general practices, we randomly assigned 2799 patients with COPD to a once-daily inhaled combination of fluticasone furoate at a dose of 100 μg and vilanterol at a dose of 25 μg (the fluticasone furoate–vilanterol group) or to usual care (the usual-care group). The primary outcome was the rate of moderate or severe exacerbations among patients who had had an exacerbation within 1 year before the trial. Secondary outcomes were the rates of primary care contact (contact with a general practitioner, nurse, or other health care professional) and secondary care contact (inpatient admission, outpatient visit with a specialist, or visit to the emergency department), modification of the initial trial treatment for COPD, and the rate of exacerbations among patients who had had an exacerbation within 3 years before the trial, as assessed in a time-to-event analysis.

RESULTS

The rate of moderate or severe exacerbations was significantly lower, by 8.4% (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 15.2), with fluticasone furoate–vilanterol therapy than with usual care (P=0.02). There was no significant difference in the annual rate of COPD-related contacts to primary or secondary care. There were no significant between-group differences in the rates of the first moderate or severe exacerbation and the first severe exacerbation in the time-to-event analyses. There were no excess serious adverse events of pneumonia in the fluticasone furoate–vilanterol group. The numbers of other serious adverse events were similar in the two groups.

CONCLUSIONS

In patients with COPD and a history of exacerbations, a once-daily treatment regimen of combined fluticasone furoate and vilanterol was associated with a lower rate of exacerbations than usual care, without a greater risk of serious adverse events. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline; Salford Lung Study ClinicalTrials.gov number,NCT01551758.)

N Engl J Med 2016; 375:1253-1260

Single inhaler triple therapy versus inhaled corticosteroid plus long-acting β2-agonist therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (TRILOGY): a double-blind, parallel group, randomised controlled trial

Background

Few data are available for the efficacy of “triple therapy” with two long-acting bronchodilators and an inhaled corticosteroid in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We designed this study to assess efficacy of single-inhaler combination of an extra fine formulation of beclometasone dipropionate, formoterol fumarate, and glycopyrronium bromide (BDP/FF/GB) in COPD compared with beclometasone dipropionate and formoterol fumarate (BDP/FF) treatment.

Methods

TRILOGY was a randomised, parallel group, double-blind, active-controlled study done in 159 sites across 14 countries. The sites were a mixture of primary, secondary, and tertiary care providers, and specialist investigation units. Eligible patients with COPD had post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) of lower than 50%, one or more moderate-to-severe COPD exacerbation in the previous 12 months, COPD Assessment Test total score of 10 or more, and a Baseline Dyspnea Index focal score of 10 or less. Patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria at screening entered a 2-week open-label run-in period where they received beclometasone dipropionate (100 μg) and formoterol fumarate (6 μg) in two actuations twice daily. Patients were then randomly assigned (1:1) with an interactive response technology system to either continue BDP (100 μg) and FF (6 μg) or step-up to BDP (100 μg), FF (6 μg), and GB (12·5 μg) in two actuations twice daily for 52 weeks via pressurised metered-dose inhaler. The three co-primary endpoints were pre-dose FEV1, 2-h post-dose FEV1, and Transition Dyspnea Index (TDI) focal score, all measured at week 26 in the intention-to-treat population (all patients who were randomly assigned and received at least one dose of study drug and had at least one post-baseline efficacy assessment). Safety outcomes were measured in the safety population (all patients who were randomly assigned and received at least one dose of study drug). Secondary endpoints included moderate-to-severe COPD exacerbation rate over 52 weeks. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01917331.

Findings

Between March 21, 2014, and Jan 14, 2016, 1368 patients received either BDP/FF/GB (n=687) or BDP/FF (n=681). At week 26, BDP/FF/GB improved pre-dose FEV1 by 0·081 L (95% CI 0·052–0·109; p<0·001) and 2-h post-dose FEV1 by 0·117 L (0·086–0·147; p<0·001) compared with BDP/FF. Mean TDI focal scores at week 26 were 1·71 for BDP/FF/GB and 1·50 for BDP/FF, with a difference of 0·21 (95% CI −0·08 to 0·51; p=0·160). Adjusted annual moderate-to-severe exacerbation frequencies were 0·41 for BDP/FF/GB and 0·53 for BDP/FF (rate ratio 0·77 [95% CI 0·65–0·92]; p=0·005), corresponding to a 23% reduction in exacerbations with BDP/FF/GB compared with BDP/FF. Adverse events were reported by 368 (54%) patients with BDP/FF/GB and 379 (56%) with BDP/FF. One serious treatment-related adverse event occurred (atrial fibrillation) in a patient in the BDP/FF/GB group.

Interpretation

We provide evidence for the clinical benefits of stepping up patients with COPD from an inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist combination treatment to triple therapy using a single inhaler.

Funding

Chiesi Farmaceutici SpA.

The Lancet, Volume 388, No. 10048, p963–973, 3 September 2016

Indacaterol–Glycopyrronium versus Salmeterol–Fluticasone for COPD

BACKGROUND

Most guidelines recommend either a long-acting beta-agonist (LABA) plus an inhaled glucocorticoid or a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) as the first-choice treatment for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who have a high risk of exacerbations. The role of treatment with a LABA–LAMA regimen in these patients is unclear.

METHODS

We conducted a 52-week, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, noninferiority trial. Patients who had COPD with a history of at least one exacerbation during the previous year were randomly assigned to receive, by inhalation, either the LABA indacaterol (110 μg) plus the LAMA glycopyrronium (50 μg) once daily or the LABA salmeterol (50 μg) plus the inhaled glucocorticoid fluticasone (500 μg) twice daily. The primary outcome was the annual rate of all COPD exacerbations.

RESULTS

A total of 1680 patients were assigned to the indacaterol–glycopyrronium group, and 1682 to the salmeterol–fluticasone group. Indacaterol–glycopyrronium showed not only noninferiority but also superiority to salmeterol–fluticasone in reducing the annual rate of all COPD exacerbations; the rate was 11% lower in the indacaterol–glycopyrronium group than in the salmeterol–fluticasone group (3.59 vs. 4.03; rate ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 0.96; P=0.003). The indacaterol–glycopyrronium group had a longer time to the first exacerbation than did the salmeterol–fluticasone group (71 days [95% CI, 60 to 82] vs. 51 days [95% CI, 46 to 57]; hazard ratio, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.78 to 0.91], representing a 16% lower risk; P<0.001). The annual rate of moderate or severe exacerbations was lower in the indacaterol–glycopyrronium group than in the salmeterol–fluticasone group (0.98 vs. 1.19; rate ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.91; P<0.001), and the time to the first moderate or severe exacerbation was longer in the indacaterol–glycopyrronium group than in the salmeterol–fluticasone group (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.86; P<0.001), as was the time to the first severe exacerbation (hazard ratio, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.00; P=0.046). The effect of indacaterol–glycopyrronium versus salmeterol–fluticasone on the rate of COPD exacerbations was independent of the baseline blood eosinophil count. The incidence of adverse events and deaths was similar in the two groups. The incidence of pneumonia was 3.2% in the indacaterol–glycopyrronium group and 4.8% in the salmeterol–fluticasone group (P=0.02).

CONCLUSIONS

Indacaterol–glycopyrronium was more effective than salmeterol–fluticasone in preventing COPD exacerbations in patients with a history of exacerbation during the previous year. (Funded by Novartis; FLAME ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01782326.)

Clinical Significance of Symptoms in Smokers with Preserved Pulmonary Function

BACKGROUND

Currently, the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requires a ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) to forced vital capacity (FVC) of less than 0.70 as assessed by spirometry after bronchodilator use. However, many smokers who do not meet this definition have respiratory symptoms.

METHODS

We conducted an observational study involving 2736 current or former smokers and controls who had never smoked and measured their respiratory symptoms using the COPD Assessment Test (CAT; scores range from 0 to 40, with higher scores indicating greater severity of symptoms). We examined whether current or former smokers who had preserved pulmonary function as assessed by spirometry (FEV1:FVC ≥0.70 and an FVC above the lower limit of the normal range after bronchodilator use) and had symptoms (CAT score, ≥10) had a higher risk of respiratory exacerbations than current or former smokers with preserved pulmonary function who were asymptomatic (CAT score, <10) and whether those with symptoms had different findings from the asymptomatic group with respect to the 6-minute walk distance, lung function, or high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scan of the chest.

RESULTS

Respiratory symptoms were present in 50% of current or former smokers with preserved pulmonary function. The mean (±SD) rate of respiratory exacerbations among symptomatic current or former smokers was significantly higher than the rates among asymptomatic current or former smokers and among controls who never smoked (0.27±0.67 vs. 0.08±0.31 and 0.03±0.21 events, respectively, per year; P<0.001 for both comparisons). Symptomatic current or former smokers, regardless of history of asthma, also had greater limitation of activity, slightly lower FEV1, FVC, and inspiratory capacity, and greater airway-wall thickening without emphysema according to HRCT than did asymptomatic current or former smokers. Among symptomatic current or former smokers, 42% used bronchodilators and 23% used inhaled glucocorticoids.

CONCLUSIONS

Although they do not meet the current criteria for COPD, symptomatic current or former smokers with preserved pulmonary function have exacerbations, activity limitation, and evidence of airway disease. They currently use a range of respiratory medications without any evidence base. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health; SPIROMICS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01969344.)

N Engl J Med 2016; 374:1811-1821

Fluticasone furoate and vilanterol and survival in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with heightened cardiovascular risk (SUMMIT): a double-blind randomised controlled trial

Background

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often coexists with cardiovascular disease. Treatments for airflow limitation might improve survival and both respiratory and cardiovascular outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess whether inhaled treatment with a combined treatment of the corticosteroid, fluticasone furoate, and the long-acting β agonist, vilanterol could improve survival compared with placebo in patients with moderate COPD and heightened cardiovascular risk.

Methods

In this double-blind randomised controlled trial (SUMMIT) done in 1368 centres in 43 countries, eligible patients were aged 40–80 years and had a post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) between 50% and 70% of the predicted value, a ratio of post-bronchodilator FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC) of 0·70 or less, a smoking history of at least 10 pack-years, and a score of 2 or greater on the modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale. Patients had to have a history, or be at increased risk, of cardiovascular disease. Enrolled patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) through a centralised randomisation service in permuted blocks to receive once daily inhaled placebo, fluticasone furoate (100 μg), vilanterol (25 μg), or the combination of fluticasone furoate (100 μg) and vilanterol (25 μg). The primary outcome was all-cause mortality, and secondary outcomes were on-treatment rate of decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and a composite of cardiovascular events. Safety analyses were performed on the safety population (all patients who took at least one dose of study drug) and efficacy analyses were performed on the intention-to-treat population (safety population minus sites excluded with Good Clinical Practice violations). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01313676.

Findings

Between Jan 24, 2011, and March 12, 2014, 23 835 patients were screened, of whom 16 590 were randomised. 16 485 patients were included in the intention-to-treat efficacy population; 4111 in the placebo group, 4135 in the fluticasone furoate group, 4118 in the vilanterol group, and 4121 in the combination group. Compared with placebo, all-cause mortality was unaffected by combination therapy (hazard ratio [HR] 0·88 [95% CI 0·74–1·04]; 12% relative reduction; p=0·137) or the components (fluticasone furoate, HR 0·91 [0·77–1·08]; p=0·284; vilanterol, 0·96 [0·81–1·14]; p=0·655), and therefore secondary outcomes should be interpreted with caution. Rate of decline in FEV1 was reduced by combination therapy (38 mL per year [SE 2·4] vs 46 mL per year [2·5] for placebo, difference 8 mL per year [95% CI 1–15]) with similar findings for fluticasone furoate (difference 8 mL per year [95% CI 1–14]), but not vilanterol (difference −2 mL per year [95% CI −8 to 5]). Combination therapy had no effect on composite cardiovascular events (HR 0·93 [95% CI 0·75–1·14]) with similar findings for fluticasone furoate (0·90 [0·72–1·11]) and vilanterol (0·99 [0·80–1·22]). All treatments reduced the rate of moderate and severe exacerbation. No reported excess risks of pneumonia (5% in the placebo group, 6% in the combination group, 5% in the fluticasone furoate group, and 4% in the vilanterol group) or adverse cardiac events (17% in the placebo group, 18% in the combination group, and 17% in the fluticasone furoate group, and 17% in the vilanterol group) were noted in the treatment groups.

Interpretation

In patients with moderate COPD and heightened cardiovascular risk, treatment with fluticasone furoate and vilanterol did not affect mortality or cardiovascular outcomes, reduced exacerbations, and was well tolerated. Fluticasone furoate, alone or in combination with vilanterol, seemed to reduce FEV1 decline.

Funding

GlaxoSmithKline.

Lancet, Volume 387, No. 10030, p1817–1826, 30 April 2016