Two Phase 3 Trials of Dupilumab versus Placebo in Atopic Dermatitis

BACKGROUND

Dupilumab, a human monoclonal antibody against interleukin-4 receptor alpha, inhibits signaling of interleukin-4 and interleukin-13, type 2 cytokines that may be important drivers of atopic or allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis.

METHODS

In two randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trials of identical design (SOLO 1 and SOLO 2), we enrolled adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis whose disease was inadequately controlled by topical treatment. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive, for 16 weeks, subcutaneous dupilumab (300 mg) or placebo weekly or the same dose of dupilumab every other week alternating with placebo. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who had both a score of 0 or 1 (clear or almost clear) on the Investigator’s Global Assessment and a reduction of 2 points or more in that score from baseline at week 16.

RESULTS

We enrolled 671 patients in SOLO 1 and 708 in SOLO 2. In SOLO 1, the primary outcome occurred in 85 patients (38%) who received dupilumab every other week and in 83 (37%) who received dupilumab weekly, as compared with 23 (10%) who received placebo (P<0.001 for both comparisons with placebo). The results were similar in SOLO 2, with the primary outcome occurring in 84 patients (36%) who received dupilumab every other week and in 87 (36%) who received dupilumab weekly, as compared with 20 (8%) who received placebo (P<0.001 for both comparisons). In addition, in the two trials, an improvement from baseline to week 16 of at least 75% on the Eczema Area and Severity Index was reported in significantly more patients who received each regimen of dupilumab than in patients who received placebo (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Dupilumab was also associated with improvement in other clinical end points, including reduction in pruritus and symptoms of anxiety or depression and improvement in quality of life. Injection-site reactions and conjunctivitis were more frequent in the dupilumab groups than in the placebo groups.

CONCLUSIONS

In two phase 3 trials of identical design involving patients with atopic dermatitis, dupilumab improved the signs and symptoms of atopic dermatitis, including pruritus, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and quality of life, as compared with placebo. Trials of longer duration are needed to assess the long-term effectiveness and safety of dupilumab. (Funded by Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals; SOLO 1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02277743; SOLO 2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02277769.)

Reference: N Engl J Med 2016; 375:2335-2348December 15, 2016

Dupilumab efficacy and safety in adults with uncontrolled persistent asthma despite use of medium-to-high-dose inhaled corticosteroids plus a long-acting β2 agonist: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled pivotal phase 2b dose-ranging trial

Background

Dupilumab, a fully human anti-interleukin-4 receptor α monoclonal antibody, inhibits interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 signalling, key drivers of type-2-mediated inflammation. Adults with uncontrolled persistent asthma who are receiving medium-to-high-dose inhaled corticosteroids plus a long-acting β2 agonist require additional treatment options as add-on therapy. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of dupilumab as add-on therapy in patients with uncontrolled persistent asthma on medium-to-high-dose inhaled corticosteroids plus a long-acting β2 agonist, irrespective of baseline eosinophil count.

Methods

We did this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, pivotal phase 2b clinical trial at 174 study sites across 16 countries or regions. Adults (aged ≥18 years) with an asthma diagnosis for 12 months or more based on the Global Initiative for Asthma 2009 Guidelines receiving treatment with medium-to-high-dose inhaled corticosteroids plus a long-acting β2 agonist were eligible for participation. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1) to receive subcutaneous dupilumab 200 mg or 300 mg every 2 weeks or every 4 weeks, or placebo, over a 24-week period. The primary endpoint was change from baseline at week 12 in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 in L) in patients with baseline blood eosinophil counts of at least 300 eosinophils per μL assessed in the intention-to-treat population. Safety outcomes were assessed in all patients that received at least one dose or part of a dose of study drug. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, numberNCT01854047, and with the EU Clinical Trials Register, EudraCT number 2013-000856-16.

Findings

769 patients (158 in the placebo group and 611 in the dupilumab groups) received at least one dose of study drug. In the subgroup with at least 300 eosinophils per μL, the greatest increases (200 mg every 2 weeks, p=0·0008; 300 mg every 2 weeks, p=0·0063) in FEV1 compared with placebo were observed at week 12 with doses every 2 weeks in the 300 mg group (mean change 0·39 L [SE 0·05]; mean difference 0·21 [95% CI 0·06–0·36; p=0·0063]) and in the 200 mg group (mean change 0·43 L [SE 0·05]; mean difference 0·26 [0·11–0·40; p=0·0008]) compared with placebo (0·18 L [SE 0·05]). Similar significant increases were observed in the overall population and in the fewer than 300 eosinophils per μL subgroup (overall population: 200 mg every 2 weeks, p<0·0001; 300 mg every 2 weeks, p<0·0001; <300 eosinophils per μL: 200 mg every 2 weeks, p=0·0034; 300 mg every 2 weeks, p=0·0086), and were maintained to week 24. Likewise, dupilumab every 2 weeks produced the greatest reductions in annualised rates of exacerbation in the overall population (70–70·5%), the subgroup with at least 300 eosinophils per μL (71·2–80·7%), and the subgroup with fewer than 300 eosinophils per μL (59·9–67·6%). The most common adverse events with dupilumab compared with placebo were upper respiratory tract infections (33–41% vs 35%) and injection-site reactions (13–26% vs 13%).

Interpretation

Dupilumab increased lung function and reduced severe exacerbations in patients with uncontrolled persistent asthma irrespective of baseline eosinophil count and had a favourable safety profile, and hence in addition to inhaled corticosteroids plus long-acting β2-agonist therapy could improve the lives of patients with uncontrolled persistent asthma compared with standard therapy alone.

Funding

Sanofi-Genzyme and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals.

Lancet, Volume 388, No. 10039, p31–44, 2 July 2016

Effect of Subcutaneous Dupilumab on Nasal Polyp Burden in Patients With Chronic Sinusitis and Nasal Polyposis: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Importance  Dupilumab has demonstrated efficacy in patients with asthma and atopic dermatitis, which are both type 2 helper T-cell–mediated diseases.

Objective  To assess inhibition of interleukins 4 and 13 with dupilumab in patients with chronic sinusitis and nasal polyposis.

Design, Setting, and Participants  A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group study conducted at 13 sites in the United States and Europe between August 2013 and August 2014 in 60 adults with chronic sinusitis and nasal polyposis refractory to intranasal corticosteroids with 16 weeks of follow-up.

Interventions  Subcutaneous dupilumab (a 600 mg loading dose followed by 300 mg weekly; n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) plus mometasone furoate nasal spray for 16 weeks.

Main Outcomes and Measures  Change in endoscopic nasal polyp score (range, 0-8; higher scores indicate worse status) at 16 weeks (primary end point). Secondary end points included Lund-Mackay computed tomography (CT) score (range, 0-24; higher scores indicate worse status), 22-item SinoNasal Outcome Test score (range, 0-110; higher scores indicating worse quality of life; minimal clinically important difference ≥8.90), sense of smell assessed using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) score (range, 0-40; higher scores indicate better status), symptoms, and safety.

Results  Among the 60 patients who were randomized (mean [SD] age, 48.4 years [9.4 years]; 34 men [56.7%]; 35 with comorbid asthma), 51 completed the study. The least squares (LS) mean change in nasal polyp score was −0.3 (95% CI, −1.0 to 0.4) with placebo and −1.9 (95% CI, −2.5 to −1.2) with dupilumab (LS mean difference, −1.6 [95% CI, −2.4 to −0.7]; P < .001). The LS mean difference between the 2 groups for the Lund-Mackay CT total score was −8.8 (95% CI, −11.1 to −6.6; P < .001). Significant improvements with dupilumab were also observed for the 22-item SinoNasal Outcome Test (LS mean difference between groups, −18.1 [95% CI, −25.6 to −10.6]; P < .001) and sense of smell assessed by UPSIT (LS mean difference, 14.8 [95% CI, 10.9 to 18.7]; P < .001). The most common adverse events were nasopharyngitis (33% in the placebo group vs 47% in the dupilumab group), injection site reactions (7% vs 40%, respectively), and headache (17% vs 20%).

Conclusions and Relevance  Among adults with symptomatic chronic sinusitis and nasal polyposis refractory to intranasal corticosteroids, the addition of subcutaneous dupilumab to mometasone furoate nasal spray compared with mometasone alone reduced endoscopic nasal polyp burden after 16 weeks. Further studies are needed to assess longer treatment duration, larger samples, and direct comparison with other medications.

Trial Registration  clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01920893

By Claus Bachert (et al),  JAMA. 2016;315(5):469-479. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.19330

Efficacy and safety of dupilumab in adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis inadequately controlled by topical treatments: a randomised, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging phase 2b trial

Background

Data from early-stage studies suggested that interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 are requisite drivers of atopic dermatitis, evidenced by marked improvement after treatment with dupilumab, a fully-human monoclonal antibody that blocks both pathways. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of several dose regimens of dupilumab in adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis inadequately controlled by topical treatments.

Methods

In this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, we enrolled patients aged 18 years or older who had an Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) score of 12 or higher at screening (≥16 at baseline) and inadequate response to topical treatments from 91 study centres, including hospitals, clinics, and academic institutions, in Canada, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Japan, Poland, and the USA. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1:1), stratified by severity (moderate or severe, as assessed by Investigator’s Global Assessment) and region (Japan vs rest of world) to receive subcutaneous dupilumab: 300 mg once a week, 300 mg every 2 weeks, 200 mg every 2 weeks, 300 mg every 4 weeks, 100 mg every 4 weeks, or placebo once a week for 16 weeks. We used a central randomisation scheme, provided by an interactive voice response system. Drug kits were coded, providing masking to treatment assignment, and allocation was concealed. Patients on treatment every 2 weeks and every 4 weeks received volume-matched placebo every week when dupilumab was not given to ensure double blinding. The primary outcome was efficacy of dupilumab dose regimens based on EASI score least-squares mean percentage change (SE) from baseline to week 16. Analyses included all randomly assigned patients who received one or more doses of study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01859988.

Findings

Between May 15, 2013, and Jan 27, 2014, 452 patients were assessed for eligibility, and 380 patients were randomly assigned. 379 patients received one or more doses of study drug (300 mg once a week [n=63], 300 mg every 2 weeks [n=64], 200 mg every 2 weeks [n=61], 300 mg every 4 weeks [n=65], 100 mg every 4 weeks [n=65]; placebo [n=61]). EASI score improvements favoured all dupilumab regimens versus placebo (p<0·0001): 300 mg once a week (−74% [SE 5·16]), 300 mg every 2 weeks (−68% [5·12]), 200 mg every 2 weeks (−65% [5·19]), 300 mg every 4 weeks (−64% [4·94]), 100 mg every 4 weeks (−45% [4·99]); placebo (−18% [5·20]). 258 (81%) of 318 patients given dupilumab and 49 (80%) of 61 patients given placebo reported treatment-emergent adverse events; nasopharyngitis was the most frequent (28% and 26%, respectively).

Interpretation

Dupilumab improved clinical responses in adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis in a dose-dependent manner, without significant safety concerns. Our findings show that IL-4 and IL-13 are key drivers of atopic dermatitis.

Funding

Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals.