Objectives To compare stratified event rates from randomized controlled trials with predicted event rates from models developed in observational data, and assess their ability to accurately capture observed rates of thromboembolism and major bleeding for patients treated with dabigatran or warfarin as part of routine care.
Design New initiator cohort study.
Setting Data from United Health (October 2009 to June 2013), a commercial healthcare claims database in the United States.
Participants 21 934 adults with atrial fibrillation initiating dabigatran (150 mg dose only) or warfarin treatment as part of routine care.
Main outcome measures Predicted annual rates of thromboembolism or major bleeding, based on estimates from randomized controlled trials, models developed in routine care patients, and baseline risk scores (CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, and HAS-BLED). Thromboembolism was a composite outcome, including primary inpatient diagnosis codes for ischemic or ill defined stroke, transient ischemic attack, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, and systemic embolism. Major bleeding was a composite outcome including codes occurring in an inpatient setting for hemorrhagic stroke; major upper, lower, or unspecified gastrointestinal bleed; and major urogenital or other bleed.
Results 6516 (30%) and 15 418 (70%) of patients initiated dabigatran and warfarin, respectively. Annual event rates per 100 patients were 1.7 for thromboembolism and 4.6 for major bleeding. For thromboembolism, calibration of estimates from randomized controlled trials was similar to calibration for model based predictions; however, trial estimates for major bleeding consistently underestimated the rate of bleeding among patients in routine care. Underestimation of bleeding rates was particularly pronounced in warfarin initiators with high HAS-BLED scores, where event rates were underestimated by up to 4.0 per 100 patient years. Harrell’s c indices for discrimination for thromboembolism or major bleeding in dabigatran and warfarin initiators ranged between 0.59 and 0.66 for randomized controlled trial predictions, and between 0.52 and 0.70 for cross validated model based predictions.
Conclusion Estimated rates of thromboembolism under dabigatran or warfarin treatment in randomized controlled trials were close to observed rates in routine care patients. However, rates of major bleeding were underestimated. Models developed in routine care patients can provide accurate, tailored estimates of risk and benefit under alternative treatment to enhance patient centered care.